Glocalization in Education to Strengthen Children’s Identity – Case Study: Pakima Hani Hano Approach in Balim Valley

Through my thesis research, I found that globalization has created a cultural lag and brought up new behaviors among the Balim people in Papua which oppose the traditional values and stimulate conflicts. The social conflict that occur is a manifestation of the inability to adapt to changing expectations and the deprivation of ontological security. Although indigenous knowledge is relevant for the children’s identity and education, it has slowly been perceived as obsolete. Formal schools are responsible for this erosion by solely instilling western-based knowledge and provide so little room for Balim’s recognition. In order to bridge this gap, I use an approach that is coined by Roland Robertson, known as glocalization. Glocalization implies using education as a vehicle for indigenous knowledge dissemination by integrating it in the national curriculum that promotes global knowledge. I used the Pakima Hani Hano approach that has been implemented in several schools in Jayawijaya Regent as a case study.


This research journey has altered my personal perspective on dealing with globalization and living with the indigenous communities. I realized that it is not an either or when it comes to the global or local approach because it is necessary to expose pupils to both knowledge systems in order to empower them to make their own decisions, to transform societal conflict in their surroundings. As a teacher, I am aware that the threat of globalization could be limited by using the existing indigenous knowledge to build up resilience instead of resistance.

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